Slavery by Another Name A brief period of Black empowerment (“Reconstruction”)
took place after the Civil War. Unfortunately, by the late 1880s, the situation had worsened, and near slavery conditions taken back hold in the South. This article explores convict labor. This reading shows us how in southern counties, white merchants, judges, industrialists and law enforcement officers worked in concert to to effectively re-enslave Blacks, particularly Black men. It reminds us of the unspeakable brutality inflicted upon our ancestors as the nineteenth century turned into the twentieth.
Jim Crow in Arkansas I enjoyed the depiction of the successes of Blacks in Arkansas during Reconstruction, as well as the thoughtful depiction of the mechanisms by which those successes created anxiety in the state’s rural white population.
Making Place Making Race This article shows how racial roles are socially constructed, and also, how identity can be chosen and constructed.